2017 Afro-Colombian Briefings Choco Gold mining Human Rights Land Latest News

River with Rights: Community Response to Illegal Gold Mining in Choco, Colombia

Afro-descendants and indigenous peoples dwelling alongside the Atrato River in Choco
because the state did not act to shield its rights, it determined to use it
Constitution, "Tutela", in
attempt to pressure the state to comply with its obligations to shield them
elementary rights and river rights. On November 10, 2016, they gained a
Courtroom judgment T-622 country particular choice. In this sentence, the Courtroom of Justice
adopted the idea of bio-cultural rights in the Colombian Constitution, t
thus recognizing direct interdependence between nature and nature
cultures of ethnic communities and indigenous peoples. Courtroom
noted that the authorities didn’t comply with the constitutional regulation
an obligation to take concrete and efficient measures to cease unlawful gold
mining, which had triggered humanitarian and environmental injury
from the crisis in the Atrato river basin, its tributaries and the encompassing space
areas. It was one of the world's first phrases a
a judicial physique dealing with the bio-cultural rights of the river

This text examines the authorized actions taken by the communities
efforts to resolve the humanitarian and environmental crisis.
Descendants of Choco and indigenous peoples, represented by Consejos Comunitarios and Ethnic
networks with NGO Centro legal professionals
de Estudios para la Justicia Social Tierra Digna (Tierra Digna) Realized
the one efficient and lasting means to deal with the problems they face
petition to the Constitutional Courtroom to order the Colombian state
of gold mines and stops which might be protected or owned by unlawful, armed groups;
unlawful deforestation; addressing the shortage of primary providers; and cleanse
air pollution brought on by illegal economies. In contrast to some other Colombian division, 97 are
% of the Choco population is indigenous or
Afro descendant dwelling in a co-owned space.

Chocó is a secluded tropical cloud forest space in Colombia and one
ten hotspots in the world due to its biodiversity (Essential
Ecosystem Fund 2005) with 98 %
in the world devoted to the indigenous and Afro descendants
populations. Choco has 120 Resguardos
(indigenous individuals) and 70 consejos
comunitarios Mayores (the organs of the Afro-collective)
regions) overlaying 96% of the Choco department.


Fuerz Armad
Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), the most important guerrilla group
Colombia withdrew from Choco after signing the final peace settlement in 2007. t
November 2016. Nevertheless, the interior armed battle continues in Colombia;
the primary illegal armed groups are the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN),
After FARC, the most important group of virgins and neo-paramilitary groups. In
2017 Colombia registers the second highest number of individuals internally
in the world [IDMC 2017]. Failure
FARC's remaining energy swings led the state to undertake
Improve in the variety of ELN fighters and neo-paramilitaryists in Choco
increased violence because these groups fought for revenue control
of established illegal economies [UN Security Council 2017; ABColombia 2017, 2018].
Although Chocó is very militarized – Titan, the widespread safety forces
Workforce (Army, Navy, and Air Pressure) is placed in Choco – illegal armed groups

Chocó is situated between Darién Gap on the Panama border
Antioquia and Valle de Cauca departments; it is related by river methods
flowing into the Pacific and the Caribbean (by way of Gulfo de Uraba). Like
Consequently, Chocó is a strategic hall in the sector of drug trafficking and trafficking
arms imports (OECD 2017). Illegal gold financial system additionally transfers giant sums
money in choco. All Colombian armed actors benefit from the unlawful
gold-trading; bribes are paid at the entrance of heavy equipment, safety
money is paid to any unlawful armed group that’s underneath control and gold
used for cash laundering for drug trafficking in giant quantities
measurement is increased in Choco (OECD, 2017). These dynamics have a huge impact
Ethnic communities dwelling in Choco, producing increased violence, intimidation and
worry; Illegal armed groups determine binoculars. Still, unlawful economies
are additionally a source of revenue desperately for the poor, a bit of
infrastructure and unreasonably excessive transport costs
advertising of agricultural products which are presently not obtainable without State assist.

In Colombian regulation, the world is the idea of the elemental ethnic right
communities. The group in Choco is totally different
the rest of the country, as a result of a lot of the co-owned land, referred to as
Indigenous or African individuals. Afro descendants have been
collective land rights have been granted to an space occupied in 1991
Constitution, [i] offered that they meet certain management standards; this proper is regulated
70. Previous areas are primarily discovered on the Pacific coast

Only in the late 1990s was unlawful armed
operators (paramilitary and guerrilla teams) began to see small-scale
mechanized mining as Choco's potential lucrative enterprise. Brutal violence increased and this was combined with EU pollution
rivers that closely influenced river well being and way of life (Acción Well-liked). Excessive ranges
poverty associated with the disturbance of their traditional lifestyle
it also will increase the rejection of the state.

The life of Choco ethnic communities has been influenced for lots of of years
to preserve its rich biodiversity (Tierra Digna 2017). All this changed in the 1980s
The doorway of the paramilitary teams and the golden rush that noticed the arrival of the miners
mechanical diggers, bulldozers and "dragons" (floating mining platforms)
river). Miners have been from Brazil and neighboring departments (mentioned)
regionally as "foreigners"). Mercury was used to separate the gold from the residue
which was washed in rivers. By 2010, Colombia was the worst in the world
mercury emissions per capita from a mined gold mine and Chocó
one of the worst areas (UNIDO 2009; ABColombia 2015).

Impact of a small machined gold mine

Rio Quito is a tributary
Atrato; listed here are 4 collective areas owned by the Afro descendant
communities (San Isidro, Villa Conte, La Soledad y Paimado). Their traditional
way of life associated to agriculture (growing cereals, rice, cocoa, coconut, sugar)
sugar cane, bananas, and so on.), fishing and mining of hand tools [iii] A compact machined mining tour arrived in Rio Quito, Paimado
technical diggers in 1999 (Tiempo, 2009). About ten years later
In 2009, the Commission of State Businesses revealed that that is small-scale
machined mining, numbered 24 mechanized platforms, every disassembling
a mean of 300 grams of gold in 20 hours. That they had crashed the river: four
tons of mercury and 35,000 liters of gasoline; created 250,000 tons of sediment and
destroyed 400 hectares of virgin forests (Tiempo, 2009). Ecological injury
the river was unpredictable, which affected flora, fauna, aquatic assets, and
for public well being (Panorama
del Sector Minero, 2014; Tiempo, 2009).

”With these miners
arrived in our communities, they began to take our assets out of the group
without opportunities. Previously, we have now managed to operate, but in the normal
hand software… I’ll inform you this instantly because it isn’t a secret:
mining can also be the topic of presence
of the armed forces who own or require "security".

Councils and common elections are held. All new features
The Council should agree on the nation. Mechanized mining mining
created tensions and variations in communities for many who supported
making contracts with miners and people who opposed them. disputes
have been so critical that some communities have parallel councils
was arrange to approve contracts; or particular person families ignored
The Community Council concludes bilateral agreements with the house owners of the machine
make the most of the farm's land; and in different instances the Community Council, not forgetting
potential consequences, small companies shaped with miners
disastrous outcomes (interviews in 2014).

Social Construction of Communities
has been significantly damaged by its traditional economic actions, t
pressure group members to look for work elsewhere. The consequences are disproportionate
have an effect on ladies. Historically, ladies have earned their revenue;
nevertheless, the illegal miners, once they had moved, imposed severe restrictions
mining. [iv] In consequence, ladies have been pressured to work in mining camps by washing garments
and cooking.

”… many
Ladies are sexually abusive who come right here, they offer them jobs and ultimately waste them
and then the opposite males [at the camp] continue to rape them… there are ladies who’ve suffered
psychologically, traumatized with what has occurred to them… ”[v]

Illegal miners pay safety money
their activities for unlawful armed teams and bribes for safety
(OECD 2017). Presence of illegal armed teams protecting mining
Action makes group councils unimaginable to control proliferation
to this mine area. In addition, these mining stories convey life
Community leaders in danger; Nevertheless, many take this danger of making an attempt to stop
destroying their lifestyle:

”you set your self in danger…
the state of affairs creates worry and terror… not everybody has the braveness to face it… ”[vi]

“ The authorities… are properly
sluggish. To ensure that them to work, we’d like to be right on prime of them and typically there isn’t a confidentiality
in these [state] establishments. For example, should you declare that you don’t want the miner to be mining, then they are
you do it, you danger
they’ll kill you ”. [vii]

One great
The problem of group leaders is the informants of the local authority
who report unlawful armed teams when leaders condemn
mining. Community leaders continuously complain for a couple of hours
after notifying the authorities of the establishment of an unlawful mining camp
in their territory, they get dying threats – typically by SMS –
warns them that they may kill them in the event that they continue to condemn. In 2017
alone, 121 human rights defenders and group leaders have been killed

After years
the inactivity of the states and the growing phenomenon of the illegal mine, communities
There were legal mechanisms alongside the River Atrato to drive the state
answer their state of affairs.

Bajo Atrato, The Asociation
de Consejos Comunitarios del Bajo Atrato (ASOCOBA) asked a gaggle of individuals
legal professionals – Centro de Estudios para
la Justicia Social Tierra Digna (Tierra Digna) specializing in working
communities affected by the destructive effects of extraction gear on human rights
Help them get the state to respond and intervene in their violations
rights. These various from the unsatisfactory nature of their primary needs (health
schooling, consuming water, and so forth.) to destroy their surroundings. These
Communities stay in Bajo Atrato, a lot of the mine originated
Medio and Alto Atrato

Tierra Digna based faculty for ASOCOBAR leaders
to discover out and remedy their problems
might take. ASOCOBAR communities are contaminated by mining
deforestation was recognized as the 2 largest issues. corporations
arrived to unload the tree. Although some had licenses from CODECHOC
(local environmental agency), additionally they mocked the cloud forest
much bigger areas than that they had been granted entry (interviews,
2018). The residue of this deforestation was thrown into the river to dry
ciénagat (marshes) that get dirty
rivers make it troublesome to transport them. In addition, pollution
Medion and Alto Atrat gold mining flows from the river and
pollute water. The concern was the high mercury impact
health of societies. What was the important thing to which
lots of their needs have been dependent on the environmental protection of the Atrato River (interviews,

They said that an built-in strategy along all the Atrato
The river and its tributaries have been the only sustainable approach to deal with what it was
effects. That’s the reason the ASCOBAR communities introduced together
group councils and ethnic group organizations: Foro Inter-étnico Solidaridad Chocó (FISCH),
Afro descendants and indigenous peoples in Choco, Consejo Comunitario Mayor de la Organización Common Campesina del Alto
Atrato (COCOMOPOCA), Consejo
Comunitario Mayor de la Asociación Campesina Integral del Atrato (COCOMACIA)
talk about issues; they usually agreed on a standard legal strategy with Tierra

In 2015, Tierra Digna, as the authorized consultant of the Communities, represented Tutela with the Constitutional Courtroom.
Tutela is a particular measure
an individual citizen might ask the CC to determine whether or not they have breached it
elementary rights. Legal professionals and communities have been unsure about whether or not
The Constitutional Courtroom would accept this tutel
as Tutelas was supposed to be repaired
violations of elementary rights of individuals, whereas this Tutel dealt with elementary rights
organized collective
communities. The CC's choice created essential case-law.
because it accepted a tutel a
a gaggle of organized communities and recognized the intrinsic interdependence
environmental rights and elementary rights

communities claimed that polluting activities brought on by unlawful mines
immediately affected human health and other indirect results
effects on human well-being. These are associated to deforestation
products that have an effect on meals safety and traditional medicines and drive modifications
in accordance to traditional practices, makes use of and habits
effects of biodiversity.

defined how the authorities have not fulfilled their constitutional necessities
obligations to take concrete and effective measures to end the unlawful mine
activities had led to unprecedented environmental and humanitarian activities
contamination of toxic substances, erosion, accumulation
destruction, deforestation and loss of biodiversity in Atratin
River, its tributary and surrounding areas. This disaster was nonetheless there
uncontrolled violence by armed actors. The applicants subsequently requested the Courtroom of Justice
protection of the Community's bio-cultural rights. Its the only
definition, this refers to the rights that ethnic communities have
Manage and use self-reliance on their territory and
pure assets that make up their habitat, in accordance with their very own legal guidelines
and Customs [viii] This
is significant because their tradition, tradition and way of life have been developed
their specific relationship with biodiversity. In effect,
these rights are due to the identification of the interior connection
nature, its assets and the group of ethnic and indigenous peoples
who reside in those that are interdependent and cannot be
understood individually (T-622/16).

Initially, CC
dominated them; Communities appealed towards this determination to the Council
the government, which in flip banned the appliance. Often the government
the choice would have terminated the authorized process of these communities. Nevertheless
CC has the facility to choose instances for a radical examination in the Chamber
considers that this raises a variety of complicated constitutional legal points. due
This Tutela was chosen for its extraordinary legal and constitutional complexity

in a later evaluation by CC specialists
hearings and an area meeting with all related communities.
On this case, on 10 November 2016, the Courtroom took a radical choice
an eco-centered strategy to human rights, recognizing the Atrato River as a authorized entity with environmental rights
shield communities alongside bio-cultural rights. Bridge,
The Courtroom recognized the interdependence between the setting and the setting
Communities of Atrato. It was one of the first sentences
by the courtroom for bio-cultural rights on the river; three different sentences
New Zealand, Ecuador and India are additionally dealing with natural rights [Cano,

sentence T-622/16 ordered
Government to take quite a lot of measures to shield and combat the Atrato River
in the world of ​​unlawful mining, while respecting the setting and the setting
social realities. The sentence additionally emphasized constitutional regulation
– free, open-minded negotiation and consent of ethnic communities;
famous that "violation of elementary rights to life, well being, water, human t
food security, healthy setting, culture and area
ethnic communities dwelling in the Atrato catchment space and its t
To Colombian state entities ”(T-622, paragraph 9.45).

The courtroom ordered the government to plan after three plans
communities to implement the sentence and their deadlines

  • Surroundings
    Plan (1 yr);
  • removing
    Illegal mine plan (6 months);
  • Schedule
    to deal with food safety and the safety of cultural practices (6 months).

In addition, the federal government was required to carry out toxicology and
Native inhabitants health analysis.

Scheme 1: State
Entities answerable for totally different points of program implementation. T.
Opinion T-622/16


In addition to the implementation structure, the Courtroom t
Committee on Enforcement

Monitoring Committee (Committee)
de Seguimiento a la Sentencia

The Committee is composed of Procuraduría
(Inspector), Controlaria, and
Defensor (Human Rights Ombudsman).
Procuraduría is accountable
invitations the Committee to monitor progress each six months
implementation. Clause T-622 also offers advice for the professional panel
the quality and applicability of the technical plans drawn up in the present case

is critical, resembling Procuradur
is a disciplinary action towards state institutions; its powers
together with sanctions towards particular person state staff who do not
duties. The Committee might subsequently put strain on it
to be sure that they fulfill their duties and
implement the sentence. Choco has a
court-imposed sentences relating to the surroundings, t
mining and the shortage of insufficient public providers that haven’t been carried out.

The government of Juan Manuel Santos said after the T-622 sentence
Comisión Intersectorial para Chocó. This
it’s answerable for coordinating and implementing the EU
at the very least 9 earlier courtroom selections on the surroundings
humanitarian state of affairs in Choco; Defensor's 2014 Decision 064 defining
necessities for the remedy of malnutrition by indigenous individuals of Choco; and
agreements between states and Choco residents because of two
probably the most vital paros civicos (civil defamation),
and T-622. It is headed by the Presidential Office and
Planning Department.

Nevertheless, considerations
Among the communities affected by the T-622 sentence was the Fee
welcome the coordination of all their implementation
each undermined the involvement of communities and the EU
the potential for scrutinizing the implementation of the T-622 sentence;
The Commission had many aims, and the Guardianes consultant was just certainly one of many. Guardianes have demanded that
The buildings defined by the Courtroom are those used

Guardianes del Atrato
(Atraton Guards)

Within the judgment, the Courtroom ordered the institution of the Guardianes del Atrato, one in every of a government representative.
and one group consultant, to fulfill the position of "guardians" collectively
Rights of the Atrato River. The communities determined to explain
phrase, participation in conferences, communicating with the group and representation
the views of all consejos and resguardos have been too nice for one individual,
particularly contemplating the Atrato River is 750 kilometers long and a
considerable variety of tributaries. 14 Guardian, seven males and
seven bitches. After the talk, the government accepted this
and adopted by Decision 0907 (introduced in December 2017 and accredited in Might)
2018). Nevertheless, the decision did not determine assets
implementation; 15 Guardianes plant
is now legally recognized, but there isn’t any work to implement the finances.
The shortage of price range for determined poor communities is critical

The implementation prospects
Description of the T-622 sentence

CC collection
which establishments ought to be included in the monitoring and which of them
implementation of this Determination. It also offered skilled advisors
facilitate the work of the Supervisory Committee made up of officers
answerable for the oversight of state establishments and the monitoring of human rights.
The inclusion of state officials with a disciplinary position exhibits
CC's endeavor to ensure political weight and can
monitoring its implementation; detailed construction of its implementation
to make this choice with stronger enforcement than others
CC Selections

Other necessary parts to contemplate
mandatory if this choice is carried out in a sustainable manner. Coordination
The 4 thematic areas determined by CC are needed. If everybody
The department produces and implements a plan to deal with the T-622 sentence without something
coordination, the modifications prove unsustainable. For example
The Ministry of Defense is liable for destroying the dragon and removing the unlawful mine from the river: if
The Ministry of Defense just isn’t suitable with the Ministry of Agriculture
liable for changing agricultural tasks
because of mining, the level of poverty in these communities would lead to them
pressured to return to work for illegal mining or pushing
in the palms of different legal mafias.

a key part of native communities in production and supply
Tutuela; it’s also essential
ensure its successful implementation. 14 The approval of the Guardianes del Atrato (7 males, 7 ladies), a constructive step, failed as a result of
funding. Resolution 0907 de 2018 on Guardiania was adopted with out finances implementation.
On this respect, the shortage of a Guardianes finances considerably weakens this physique and limits work
they will do. The Guardianes
wants a price range trip (the journey could be very costly in Choco) and
cover their lack of revenue or cover the time they might have spent on farming.
In the meanwhile, they want to increase money internationally
cooperation. However the fact that the state has not offered the price range also exhibits
lack of political will to weaken the position of supervisors.

Other rising tendencies are the exclusion of session and
the involvement of communities in the planning of implementation plans.
primary research and action plans have been introduced to communities in June 2018.
The essential analysis and the five-year plan produced have been finished with out
involvement. Lack of sound in what occurred
their areas brought about considerable concern, which was aggravated
poor high quality of primary analysis and lack of element in motion plans.
primary analysis didn’t provide an integrated analysis. ,
mechanical unlawful quarrying or a plan to set up
Main analysis, primary analysis on river basin breakdown.
the documents submitted collected fairly dated secondary literature and knowledge
space. There was additionally no integrated evaluation and monitoring

Use of unlawful gold mines to fund unlawful armed teams
drug cash laundering brings to the game quite a few illegal armed teams and
legal networks that represent a big impediment to the security of the individuals concerned
Implementing T-622. In 2015, the federal government introduced that there was illegal mining
The drug commerce surpassed the primary generator of drug trafficking
Colombia (Bargent et al., 2015;
GITOC 2016; Semana 2013). Paying bribes to all armed actors
legal and unlawful, in addition to corrupt local authorities do this a
Implementing a troublesome judgment successfully and sustainably.

The truth that the state has not responded to creating adequate circumstances
Community involvement additionally consists of safety and security points
Guardianes and others security
area leaders who’re beneath menace and have acquired little or little
safety mechanisms usually are not supported from the national safety unit.
The shortage of political willingness that a few of these elements show will
efficient implementation of the decision.

the commitment of the whole Choco group to see this sentence
has led to the campaign being carried out
the diplomatic corps, the INGO, the scientists and the media, who have produced totally different
very constructive results. One
The promising outcomes of this work are that the supply is designed to help
Implementing Glasgow's T-622 sentence
The College was accredited with funding from Newton Caldas Fund, Financial
Social Research Council and Colciencias. United Nations Surroundings
The program provides priority to their participation in the implementation of this program
World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and different international
organizations, together with ABColomb and its member organizations.


Tierra Digna
and FISCH, COCOMOPOCA, COCOMACIA and ASCOBAR communities reached a sentence
T-622 and showed that communities can use Colombian
the authorized system forces the state to commit itself to upholding the rule of regulation.
Solely time tells you whether or not the regulation is used in this context
effective. Political will is, in fact, a key a part of implementation, but
it's not the only one. Management and commitment regionally, nationally, and
Internationally, if coordinated, it could actually tremendously improve the chance
of an important authorized selections
worldwide to shield pure rights. A world context where
pure rights will even proceed to improve, which can encourage the likelihood. This
is clearly the first step in the great distance forward. It's not
This is clear at this level if this sentence is absolutely carried out. Nevertheless,
Guardianes has decided
del Atrato and organizations regionally, nationally and internationally
seeing this occur.


Acción Widespread por la violación de los derechos colectivos
consagrados en los literales a), c), f), g) del artículo four de la Ley 472 de
1998, Consejo Comunitario de Paimadó

ABColombia (2015) Enhancing the Colombian Battle: The Impression of Gold Extraction on Choco

Cano Pecharroman, Lidia (2018) Nature Rights: Rivers That Can Stand in Courtroom, Earth Institute,
University of Columbia, New York

Worldwide Organized Crime GITOC (2016) Organized Crime and Illicitly Excavated Gold in Latin America

Instituto de Estudios para el Desarrollo y
la Paz –INDEPAZ (2015), XI informe de presencia de teams

narcoparamilitares en 2014

OECD (2017)
Gold Quarry in the Colombian Gold Provide Chain in Choco

UNODC (2016) Colombia:
Local weather Change Evidencias a partir de percepción Remota

OHCHR (2018)
United Nations Excessive Commissioner for Human Rights
rights in Colombia

UNIDO (2010) Antioquia, Colombia: Probably the most polluted spot in the mercury world:
impressions of two area journeys

United Nations Safety Council (2017), report
Secretary-Basic of the United Nations Monitoring Mission in Colombia

Judgment of the Constitutional Courtroom
T-622/16, 2016. 2016. https://bit.ly/2oVoQGI [19659002] Website

ABColombia (2017) Colombian Colombian
The Civil Service Tribunal units a worldwide precedent final used on 29 June 2018 at https://www.abcolombia.org.uk/constitucal-court-sets-global-precedent/

Semana.com (2013) Minería ilegal:
entre el Oro y el crimen, final used June 29, 2018

ABColombia, Battle
Pahenee Choco, April 29, 2017

ABColombia, growing
concern concerning the worsening of the humanitarian disaster in Choco, 11 July 2018, https://www.abcolombia.org.uk/news/news-archive/

Newspapers [19659002] James and Norby, Michael (2015), Al Jazeera
America, blood gold: conflict
zones in Colombia to jewelry shops in the US.

El Tiempo, Decomisan 24 dragas por explotación ilegal
de oro en Chocó y hallan peces contaminados con mercurio, 21 April 2009.

Tiempo (2014) El desolador panorama de la
minería ilegal en el Chocó


Dinero (2011) La nueva

Panorama del Sector Minero (2014) Fiscalía Basic de Nación,
Comunicado del 21 de abril de 2009, Bogotá, cited by UPME (Unidad de Planeación
Minera Energética) in Panorama del Sector Minero,
August 2014.

[i] This Constitutional Rights was enacted into
regulation by way of Regulation 70 of 1993.

[ii] Afro-descendants initially arrived here as
escaped slaves and later as freed slaves. They occupied this distant jungle space
of Colombia and commenced to develop a standard way of life comparable to that of
indigenous peoples. Regulation 70 of 1993 which enacted the Constitutional modifications
enshrines protection of Afro-descendants’ cultural practices and conventional
makes use of of natural assets, as well as guaranteeing the economic and social
improvement of their communities. By 1996, many had shaped the required group
buildings and had acquired their formal land titles or have been in the method
doing so.

[iii] Paimado group also applied for and
obtained a few years in the past the mining rights for black communities in their
territory. Nevertheless, they’ve been unable to realise this proper due for a
variety of causes together with the illegal mining that’s working in their

[iv] In these riverine communities they paned and
dived for gold this offered an essential portion of their revenue. The livelihoods of
these communities previously had a stability of actions, all of which
contributed to an satisfactory revenue. Artisanal mining was a key element of
Tämä. When the miners moved in, the group members both had to work for
them or wait on the aspect of the rivers until the miners stopped the machines
for a set interval to let group members pan for the dregs left behind. With
the speedy destruction of their livelihoods, group members began working
for these miners. See ABColombia’s
Report for extra info on the totally different forms of artisanal mining used by
these communities.

[v] Individual 1 interviewed by ABColombia in
September 2014

[vi] Individual 2 interviewed by ABColombia in
September 2014

[vii] Individual three interviewed by ABColombia in
September 2014

[viii] Regulation 70 of 1996 affords Afro- descendant
communities with collective territory safety of their “to administer and exercise autonomous
guardianship over their territories -according to their own laws, customs”

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